SOCCOM Publications

SOCCOM Publications

Peer-reviewed publications

SOCCOM authors should acknowledge NSF support - sample text for acknowledging SOCCOM funding and data sources is here.


  1. On the role of the Antarctic Slope Front on the occurrence of the Weddell Sea polynya under climate change
    Lockwood, J. W., C. O. Dufour, S. M. Griffies, and M. Winton (2021). Journal of Climate,  1-56, DOI:10.1175/JCLI-D-20-0069.1

  2. Evaluation of sea-ice thickness from four reanalyses in the Antarctic Weddell Sea
    Shi, Q., Q. Yang, L. Mu, J. Wang, F. Massonnet and M.R. Mazloff (2021). The Cryosphere, 15, 31–47, DOI:10.5194/tc-15-31-2021


  1. Self‐shading and meltwater spreading control the transition from light to iron limitation in an Antarctic coastal polynya
    Twelves, A. G., D.N. Goldberg, S.F. Henley, M.R. Mazloff & D.C. Jones (2020). Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 125, e2020JC016636. DOI:10.1029/2020JC016636

  2. Recent recovery of Antarctic Bottom Water formation in the Ross Sea driven by climate anomalies Silvano, A., Foppert, A., Rintoul, S.R. et al. (2020). Nat. Geosci. DOI: 10.1038/s41561-020-00655-3

  3. Seasonal modulation of phytoplankton biomass in the Southern Ocean
    Arteaga, L.A., E. Boss, M.J. Behrenfeld et al. (2020). Nat Commun 11, 5364. DOI: 10.1038/s41467-020-19157-2

  4. Eddy‐induced acceleration of Argo floats
    Wang, T., S.T. Gille, M.R. Mazloff, N.V. Zilberman, & Y. Du (2020). Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 125, e2019JC016042. DOI: 10.1029/2019JC016042

  5. Supercooled Southern Ocean Water
    Haumann, F.A., R. Moorman, S. Riser, L. H. Smedsrud, T. Maksym, A. P. S. Wong, E. A. Wilson, R. Drucker. L. D. Talley, K. S. Johnson, R. M. Key, J. L. Sarmiento (2020).  Geophysical Research Letters, 47, e2020GL090242. DOI:10.1029/2020GL090242

  6. Detecting mesopelagic organisms using biogeochemical‐Argo floats
    Haëntjens, N., Della Penna, A., Briggs, N., Karp‐Boss, L., Gaube, P., Claustre, H., & Boss, E. (2020).  Geophysical Research Letters, 47, e2019GL086088. DOI:10.1029/2019GL086088

  7. Southern Ocean carbon export efficiency in relation to temperature and primary productivity
    Fan, G., Z. Han, W. Ma, S. Chen, F. Chai, M.R. Mazloff, J. Pan, and H. Zhang (2020). Sci Rep 10, 13494. DOI: 10.1038/s41598-020-70417-z

  8. Biogeochemical Argo [in “State of the Climate in 2019"]
    Johnson, K.S., M.B. Bif, S.M. Bushinsky, A.J. Fassbender, and Y. Takeshita (2020). Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 101 (8), S167–S169. DOI:10.1175 / BA M S - D -20 - 010 5.1.

  9. Southern Ocean [in “State of the Climate in 2019”]
    Queste, B. Y., E. P. Abrahamsen, M. D. du Plessis, S. T. Gille, L. Gregor, M. R. Mazloff, A. Narayanan, F. Roquet, and S. Swart (2020). Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 101 (8), S307–S309. DOI: 10.1175/BAMS-D-20-0090.1

  10. Effects of Buoyancy and Wind Forcing on Southern Ocean Climate Change
    Shi, J.-R, L.D. Talley, S.-P. Xie, W. Liu, S.T. Gille (2020). J. Climate, 33(23), 10003-10020. DOI:10.1175/JCLI-D-19-0877.1

  11. Monitoring ocean biogeochemistry with autonomous platforms
    Chai, F., K.S. Johnson, H. Claustre et al. (2020). Nat Rev Earth Environ.  DOI: 10.1038/s43017-020-0053-y

  12. Representation of Southern Ocean properties across Coupled Model Intercomparison Project generations: CMIP3 to CMIP6
    Beadling, R.L., J.L. Russell, R.J. Stouffer, M. Mazloff, L.D. Talley, P.J. Goodman, J.B. Sallée, H.T. Hewitt, P. Hyder, and A. Pandde (2020). J. Climate, 33(15), 6555–6581. DOI: 10.1175/JCLI-D-19-0970.1

  13. Impacts of ice-shelf melting on water mass transformation in the Southern Ocean from E3SM simulations
    Jeong, H., X.S. Asay-Davis, A.K. Turner, D.S. Comeau, S.F. Price, R.P. Abernathey, M. Veneziani, M.R. Petersen, M.J. Hoffman, M.R. Mazloff, and T.D. Ringler (2020).  J. Climate, 33(13), 5787–5807..  DOI:10.1175/JCLI-D-19-0683.1

  14. Weddell Sea phytoplankton blooms modulated by sea ice variability and polynya formation
    von Berg, L., C. J. Prend, E. C. Campbell, M. R. Mazloff, L. D. Talley, and S. T. Gille (2020). Geophysical Research Letters, 47, e2020GL087954. DOI:10.1029/2020GL087954

  15. Sea‐ice induced Southern Ocean subsurface warming and surface cooling in a warming climate
    Haumann, F. A.,  N. Gruber, & M. Münnich (2020). AGU Advances, 1, e2019AV000132. DOI:10.1029/2019AV000132

  16. Water mass and biogeochemical variability in the Kerguelen sector of the Southern Ocean: A machine learning approach for a mixing hot spot
    Rosso, I., M. R. Mazloff, L.D. Talley, S.G. Purkey, N.M. Freeman & G. Maze ( 2020). Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 125, e2019JC015877. DOI:10.1029/2019JC015877

  17. Using a regional ocean model to understand the structure and variability of acoustic arrivals in Fram Strait
    Geyer, F., H. Sagen, B. Cornuelle, M.R. Mazloff, and H.J. Vazquez (2020). The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 147, 1042. DOI: 10.1121/10.0000513

  18. The Importance of Remote Forcing for Regional Modeling of Internal Waves
    Mazloff, M. R., B. Cornuelle, S.T. Gille & J. Wang ( 2020). Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 125. DOI:10.1029/2019JC015623

  19. Observing the Global Ocean with Biogeochemical-Argo
    Claustre, H., K.S. Johnson, Y. Takeshita (2020).  Annual Review of Marine Science 12:1, 23-48. DOI:10.1146/annurev-marine-010419-010956

  20. Importance of wind and meltwater for observed chemical and physical changes in the Southern Ocean
    Bronselaer, B., Russell, J.L., Winton, M. et al. Nat. Geosci. 13, 35–42 (2020). DOI: 10.1038/s41561-019-0502-8


  1. Reassessing Southern Ocean air‐sea CO2 flux estimates with the addition of biogeochemical float observations
    Bushinsky, S. M., P. Landschützer, C. Rödenbeck, A.R. Gray, D. Baker, M.R. Mazloff et al. (2019). Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 33, 1370– 1388. DOI:10.1029/2019GB006176

  2. Temporal and Spatial Scales of Correlation in Marine Phytoplankton Communities
    Kuhn, A. M., S. Dutkiewicz, O. Jahn, S. Clayton, T.A. Rynearson, M.R. Mazloff, & A.D. Barton (2019). Temporal and spatial scales of correlation in marine phytoplankton communities. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 124, 9417– 9438. DOI:10.1029/2019JC015331

  3. Identifying ocean swell generation events from Ross Ice Shelf seismic data
    Hell, M. C., B. D. Cornuelle, S. T. Gille, A. J. Miller, and P. D. Bromirski (accepted). J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech., 36, 2171-2189, DOI:10.1175/JTECH-D-19-0093.1

  4. Water mass characteristics of the Antarctic margins and the production and seasonality of Dense Shelf Water
    Narayanan, A., S. T. Gille, M. R. Mazloff, K. Murali (2019). J. Geophys. Res. - Oceans, 124, 9277– 9294. DOI:10.1029/2018JC014907

  5. A BGC-Argo Guide: Planning, Deployment, Data Handling and Usage
    Bittig H.C., T. L. Maurer, J.N. Plant, C. Schmechtig, A.P.S. Wong, H. Claustre, T.W. Trull, T.V.S.U. Bhaskar, E. Boss, G. Dall’Olmo, E. Organelli, A. Poteau, K.S. Johnson, C. Hanstein, E. Leymarie, S. Le Reste, S.C. Riser, R.A. Rupan, V. Taillandier, V. Thierry, X. Xing (2019). Frontiers in Marine Science, 6, p. 502. DOI:10.3389/fmars.2019.00502   

  6. On the Future of Argo: A Global, Full-Depth, Multi-Disciplinary Array
    Roemmich D, Alford MH, Claustre H, Johnson K, King B, Moum J, Oke P, Owens WB, Pouliquen S, Purkey S, Scanderbeg M, Suga T, Wijffels S, Zilberman N, Bakker D, Baringer M, Belbeoch M, Bittig HC, Boss E, Calil P, Carse F, Carval T, Chai F, Conchubhair DÓ, d’Ortenzio F, Dall’Olmo G, Desbruyeres D, Fennel K, Fer I, Ferrari R, Forget G, Freeland H, Fujiki T, Gehlen M, Greenan B, Hallberg R, Hibiya T, Hosoda S, Jayne S, Jochum M, Johnson GC, Kang K, Kolodziejczyk N, Körtzinger A, Le Traon P-Y, Lenn Y-D, Maze G, Mork KA, Morris T, Nagai T, Nash J, Naveira Garabato A, Olsen A, Pattabhi RR, Prakash S, Riser S, Schmechtig C, Schmid C, Shroyer E, Sterl A, Sutton P, Talley L, Tanhua T, Thierry V, Thomalla S, Toole J, Troisi A, Trull TW, Turton J, Velez-Belchi PJ, Walczowski W, Wang H, Wanninkhof R, Waterhouse AF, Waterman S, Watson A, Wilson C, Wong APS, Xu J and Yasuda I (2019) . Front. Mar. Sci., 6:439. DOI: 10.3389/fmars.2019.00439

  7. The Global Ocean Ship-Based Hydrographic Investigations Program (GO-SHIP): A Platform for Integrated Multidisciplinary Ocean Science
    Sloyan BM, Wanninkhof R, Kramp M, Johnson GC, Talley LD, Tanhua T, McDonagh E, Cusack C, O’Rourke E, McGovern E, Katsumata K, Diggs S, Hummon J, Ishii M, Azetsu-Scott K, Boss E, Ansorge I, Perez FF, Mercier H, Williams MJM, Anderson L, Lee JH, Murata A, Kouketsu S, Jeansson E, Hoppema M and Campos E (2019). Front. Mar. Sci., 6:445. DOI:10.3389/fmars.2019.00445

  8. Fe sources and transport from the Antarctic Peninsula shelf to the southern Scotia Sea
    Jiang, M., C. I. Measures, K. A. Barbeau, M. A. Charette, S. T. Gille, M. Hatta, M. Kahru, B. G. Mitchell, A. C. Naveira Garabato, C. Reiss, K. Selph, and M. Zhou, 2019. Deep-Sea Research I, 150, 103060, DOI:10.1016/j.dsr.2019.06.006. 

  9. Constraining Southern Ocean air-sea-ice fluxes through enhanced observations
    Swart, S., S. T. Gille, B. Delille, S. Josey, M. Mazloff, L. Newman, A. F. Thompson, J. Thomson, B. Ward, M. D. Du Plessis, E. C. Kent, J. Girton, L. Gregor, Petra H, P. Hyder, L. Ponzi Pezzi, R. Buss De Souza, V. Tamsitt, R. A. Weller, and C. J. Zappa, 2019. Frontiers in Marine Science, 6, 421, DOI:10.3389/fmars.2019.00421

  10. Polar Ocean Observations: A Critical Gap in the Observing System and its effect on Environmental Prediction
    Smith, G. C., R. Allard, M. Babin, L. Bertino, M. Chevallier, G. K. Corlett, J. Crout, F. Davidson, B. Delille, S. T. Gille, D. Hebert, P. Hyder, J. Intrieri, J. Lagunas, G. Larnicol, T. Kaminski, B. J. Kater, F. Kauker, C. Marec, M. Mazloff, E. J. Metzger, C. Mordy, A. G. O'Carroll, S. M. Olsen, M. Phelps, P. Posey, P. Prandi, E. Rehm, P. Reid, I. Rigor, S. Sandven, S. Swart, O. M. Smedstad, A. Solomon, A. Storto, P. Thibaut, J. Toole, K. Wood, J. Xie, Q. Yang, WWRP-PPP Steering Group, (2019). Frontiers in Marine Science, 6, 429, DOI:10.3389/fmars.2019.0042

  11. Physical drivers of phytoplankton bloom initiation in the Southern Ocean’s Scotia Sea
    Prend, C. J., S. T. Gille, L. D. Talley, B. G. Mitchell, I. Rosso, and M. R. Mazloff (2019).  Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 124, 5811-5826. DOI:10.1029/2019JC015162

  12. Southern Ocean phytoplankton blooms observed by biogeochemical floats
    Uchida, T., D. Balwada, R. P. Abernathey, C. J. Prend, E. Boss, and S. T. Gille (2019). Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 124. DOI:10.1029/2019JC015355

  13. Southern Ocean [in “State of the Climate in 2018”]
    Meijers, A. J., B. Sallée, A. Grey, K. Johnson, K. Arrigo, S. Swart, B. King, and M. Mazloff (2019). Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 100 (9), S181–S185. DOI:10.1175/2019BAMSStateoftheClimate.1.

  14. Nutrient controls on export production in the Southern Ocean
    Arteaga, L. A., M. Pahlow, S.M. Bushinsky & J.L. Sarmiento (2019). Nutrient controls on export production in the Southern Ocean. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 33.  DOI:10.1029/2019GB006236

  15. Antarctic offshore polynyas linked to Southern Hemisphere climate anomalies
    Campbell, E.C., E.A. Wilson, G.W.K.Moore, S.C. Riser, C.E. Brayton, M.R. Mazloff, L.D. Talley, (2019). Nature, 570, 319–325.  DOI:10.1038/s41586-019-1294-0

  16. Insights from GO-SHIP hydrography data into the thermodynamic consistency of CO2 system measurements in seawater
    Fong, M.B. and A.G. Dickson (2019). Marine Chemistry, 211, 52-63. DOI: 10.1016/j.marchem.2019.03.006.

  17. The Weddell Gyre, Southern Ocean: present knowledge and future challenges
    Jokat, W., L. Jullion, M. Mazloff, D.C.E. Bakker, J.A. Brearley, P. Croot. T. Hattermann, J. Hauck, C.‐D. Hillenbrand, C.J.M. Hoppe, O. Huhn, B.P. Koch, O.J. Lechtenfeld, M.P. Meredith. A.C. Naveira Garabato, E.‐M. Nöthig, I. Peeken, M.M. Rutgers van der Loeff, S. Schmidtko, M. Schröder, V.H. Strass, S. Torres‐Valdés, A. Verdy (2019). Reviews of Geophysics, 57. DOI: 10.1029/2018RG000604

  18. The observed seasonal cycle of macronutrients in Drake Passage: relationship to fronts and utility as a model metric
    Freeman, N.M., D.R. Munro, J. Sprintall, M.R. Mazloff, S. Purkey, I. Rosso, C.A. DeRanek, C. Sweeney (2019). Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 124DOI:10.1029/2019JC015052

  19. Observing Changes in Ocean Carbonate Chemistry: Our Autonomous Future
    Bushinsky, S.M., Y. Takeshita & N.L. Williams (2019). Curr Clim Change Rep. DOI:10.1007/s40641-019-00129-8

  20. Winter Upper-Ocean Stability and Ice–Ocean Feedbacks in the Sea Ice–Covered Southern Ocean
    Wilson, E.A., S.C. Riser, E.C. Campbell, and A.P. Wong (2019). J. Phys. Oceanogr., 49, 1099–1117. DOI:10.1175/JPO-D-18-0184.1

  21. A deep eastern boundary current carrying Indian Deep Water south of Australia
    Tamsitt, V., L.D. Talley, M.R. Mazloff (2019). J. Geophys. Res.Oceans, 124. DOI:10.1029/2018JC014569

  22. Deciphering patterns and drivers of anthropogenic heat and carbon storage in the Southern Ocean
    Chen, H, A. K. Morrison, C. O. Dufour, J.L. Sarmiento (2019). Geophys. Res. Let. DOI:10.1029/2018GL080961

  23. The Effects of Enhanced Sea Ice Export from the Ross Sea on Recent Cooling and Freshening of the Southeast Pacific
    Cerovečki, I., A.J. Meijers, M.R. Mazloff, S.T. Gille, V.M. Tamsitt, and P.R. Holland (2019). J. Climate, 32, 2013–2035. DOI:10.1175/JCLI-D-18-0205.1 

  24. The water mass transformation framework for ocean physics and biogeochemistry
    Groeskamp, S., S.M. Griffies, D. Iudicone, R. Marsh, A.J.G. Nurser, and J.D. Zika, (2019). Annual Review of Marine Science, 11, 271-305.  DOI:10.1146/annurev-marine-010318-095421

  25. Southern Ocean biogeochemical float deployment strategies, with example from the Greenwich Meridian line (GO-SHIP A12)
    Talley, L.D., I. Rosso, I. Kamenkovich, M.E. Mazloff, J.Wang, E. Boss, A.R. Gray, K.S. Johnson, R. Key, S.C. Riser, N.L. Williams, and J.L. Sarmiento (2019). J. Geophys. Res. - Oceans. DOI:10.1029/2018JC014059


  1. Identifying Lagrangian coherent vortices in a mesocale eddy-permitting ocean model
    Tarshish, N., R. Abernathey, C. Zhang, C.O. Dufour, I. Frenger, and S.M. Griffies (2018). Ocean Modelling, 130, 15-28.. DOI: 10.1016/j.ocemod.2018.07.001

  2. Recent Southern Ocean warming and freshening driven by greenhouse gas emissions and ozone depletion
    Swart, N.C.,  S.T. Gille, J.C. Fyfe & N.P. Gillett (2018). Nature Geoscience, 11, 836–841. DOI: 10.1038/s41561-018-0226-1

  3. Low-nutrient organic matter in the Sargasso Sea thermocline: A hypothesis for its role, identity, and carbon cycle implications
    Fawcett, S. E., K. S. Johnson, S. C. Riser, N. Van Oostende, and D. M. Sigman (2018). Marine Chemistry. DOI:10.1016/j.marchem.2018.10.008

  4. Evidence of jet‐scale overturning ocean circulations in Argo float trajectories
    Li, Q., Lee, S., & M. Mazloff (2018).  Geophysical Research Letters, 45. DOI:10.1029/2018GL078950

  5. Southern Ocean [in “State of the Climate in 2017”]
    Swart, S, K.S. Johnson, M.R. Mazloff, A. Meijers, M.P. Meredith, L. Newman, and J.-B. Sallée (2018).   Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.. 99(8).

  6. Change in future climate due to Antarctic meltwater
    Bronselaer, B., M. Winton, S.M. Griffies, R.J. Stouffer, W.J. Hurlin, O.V. Sergienko, K. Rodgers, J. Russell (2018). Nature, 564, 53–58, DOI:10.1038/s41586-018-0712-z

  7. Observing the ice covered Weddell Sea with profiling floats: position uncertainties and correlation statistics
    Chamberlain, P., L.D. Talley, M. Mazloff, S. Riser, K. Speer, A.R. Gray, 2018. J. Geophys. Res. -Oceans, DOI:10.1029/2017JC012990

  8. An Alternative to Static Climatologies: Robust Estimation of Open Ocean CO2 Variables and Nutrient Concentrations From T, S, and O2 Data Using Bayesian Neural Networks
    Bittig, H.C., T. Steinhoff, H.Claustre, B. Fiedler, N.L. Williams, R. Sauzède, Arne Körtzinger, and J.-P. Gattuso, 2018. Front. Mar. Sci., 20 September 2018, doi: 10.3389/fmars.2018.00328

  9. When mixed layers are not mixed: Storm-driven mixing and bio-optical vertical gradients in mixed layers of the Southern Ocean
    Carranza, M. M., S. T. Gille, P. J. S. Franks, K. S. Johnson, R. Pinkel, and J. B. Girton, 2017. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, doi:10.1029/2018JC014416

  10. Autonomous biogeochemical floats detect significant carbon dioxide outgassing in the high-latitude Southern Ocean
    Gray, A.R., K.S. Johnson, S.M. Bushinsky, S.C. Riser, J.L. Russell, L.D. Talley, R. Wanninkhof, N.L. Williams, and J.L. Sarmiento (2018). Geophys. Res. Lett., doi: 10.1029/2018GL078013

  11. Evolving relative importance of the Southern Ocean and North Atlantic in anthropogenic ocean heat uptake
    Shi, J.-R., S.-P. Xie, and L. D. Talley (2018). J. Climate, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-18-0170.1

  12. Utilizing the Drake Passage Time-series to understand variability and change in subpolar Southern Ocean pCO2
    Fay, A.R., N.S. Lovenduski, G.A. McKinley, D.R. Munro, C. Sweeney, A.R. Gray, P. Landschützer, B. Stephens, T. Takahashi, and N. Williams (2018). Biogeosciences, 15. doi: 10.5194/bg-15-3841-2018

  13. Assessment of the Carbonate Chemistry Seasonal Cycles in the Southern Ocean from Persistent Observational Platforms
    Williams, N.L., L.W. Juranek, R.A. Feely, J.L. Russell, K.S. Johnson, B. Hales (2018). J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, doi: 10.1029/2017JC012917

  14. Numerical simulations to project Argo float positions in the mid-depth and deep southwest Pacific
    Wang, T., S.T. Gille, M.R. Mazloff, N.V. Zilberman, and Y. Du (2018). J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 0, doi: 10.1175/JTECH-D-17-0214.1

  15. Assessment of autonomous pH measurements for determining surface seawater partial pressure of CO2
    Takeshita, Y., K.S. Johnson, T.R. Martz, J.N. Plant, and J.L. Sarmiento (2018). J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, doi: 10.1029/2017JC013387

  16. Episodic Southern Ocean heat loss and its mixed layer impacts revealed by the farthest south multiyear surface flux mooring
    Ogle, S.E., V. Tamsitt, S. A. Josey, S.T. Gille, I. Cerovecki, L.D. Talley, R.A. Weller (2018). Geophys. Res. Lett.,45. doi:10.1029/2017GL076909.

  17. Profiling Floats in SOCCOM: Technical Capabilities for Studying the Southern Ocean
    Riser, S., D. Swift, and R. Drucker (2018). J. Geophys. Res. Oceans. doi 10.1002/2017/JCO13419

  18. Assessment of Export Efficiency Equations in the Southern Ocean Applied to Satellite-Based Net Primary Production
    Arteaga, L., N. Haëntjens, E. Boss, K.S. Johnson, and J.L. Sarmiento (2018). J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, doi: 10.1002/2018JC013787

  19. Lagrangian Timescales of Southern Ocean Upwelling in a Hierarchy of Model Resolutions
    Drake, H.F., A.K. Morrison, S.M. Griffies, J.L. Sarmiento, W. Weijer, and A.R. Gray (2018). Geophysical Research Letters, 45, 891–898, doi: 10.1002/2017GL076045

  20. Transformation of Deep Water Masses Along Lagrangian Upwelling Pathways in the Southern Ocean
    Tamsitt, V., R. P. Abernathey, M. R. Mazloff, J. Wang, L. D. Talley (2018). J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, doi: 10.1002/2017JC013409

  21. Metrics for the Evaluation of the Southern Ocean in Coupled Climate Models and Earth System Models
    Russell, J.R., I. Kamenkovich, C. Bitz, R. Ferrari, S.T. Gille P.J. Goodman, R. Hallberg, K. Johnson K. Khazmutdinova, I. Marinov, M. Mazloff, S. Riser, J.L. Sarmiento Kevin Speer Lynne D. Talley and R. Wanninkhof. (2018). J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, doi: 10.1002/2017JC013461

  22. Correlation Lengths for Estimating the Large-Scale Carbon and Heat Content of the Southern Ocean
    Mazloff, M., B.D. Cornuelle, S.T. Gille, and A. Verdy (2018). J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 122, doi: 10.1002/2017JC013408

  23. A Multi-variate Empirical Orthogonal Function Method to Construct Nitrate Maps in the Southern Ocean
    Liang, Y., M.R. Mazloff, I. Rosso, S. Fang, and J. Yu (2018). J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., doi: 10.1175/JTECH-D-18-0018.1

  24. Interfacial form stress in the Southern Ocean state estimate
    Masich, J., Mazloff, M. R., & Chereskin, T. K. (2018). Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 123, doi: 10.1029/2018JC013844

  25. Estimating Oxygen in the Southern Ocean using Argo Temperature and Salinity
    Giglio, D. , Lyubchich, V. and Mazloff, M. R. (2018), J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, doi:10.1029/2017JC013404

  26. Toward deeper development of Biogeochemical-Argo floats
    Xing, X., H. Claustre, E. Boss, and F. Chai (2018).  Atmospheric and Oceanic Science Letters, 11 (3), doi:10.1080/16742834.2018.1457932

  27. Oxygen optode sensors: principle, characterization, calibration and application in the ocean
    Bittig, H. C., A. Körtzinger, C. Neill, E. van Ooijen, J. N. Plant, J. Hahn, K. S. Johnson, B. Yang, and S. R. Emerson (2018). Frontiers in Marine Science, doi: 10.3389/fmars.2017.00429.


  1. Physical and biological drivers of biogeochemical tracers within the seasonal ice zone of the Southern Ocean from profiling floats
    Briggs, E., T. R. Martz, L. D. Talley, M. R. Mazloff and K.S. Johnson (2017). J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 123, doi: 10.1002/2017JC012846

  2. Updated methods for global locally interpolated estimation of alkalinity, pH, and nitrate
    Carter, B. R., Feely, R. A., Williams, N. L., Dickson, A. G., Fong, M. B., Takeshita, Y. (2017). Updated methods for globally locally-interpolated estimation of alkalinity, pH, and Nitrate. Limnology & Oceanography Methods,16, 119–131. doi: 10.1002/lom3.10232

  3. Agreement of CMIP5 Simulated and Observed Ocean Anthropogenic CO2 Uptake
    Bronselaer, B., M. Winton, J. Russell, C.L. Sabine, and S. Khatiwala (2017). Geophys. Res. Lett., doi: 0.1002/2017GL074435

  4. Oxygen in the Southern Ocean from Argo floats: Determination of processes driving air-sea fluxes
    Bushinsky, S.M., A.R. Gray, K.S. Johnson, J.L. Sarmiento (2017). J. Geophys. Res. Ocean,122, doi:10.1002/2017JC012923

  5. Lagrangian ocean analysis: fundamentals and practices
    van Sebille, E., S. M. Griffies, R. Abernathey, T. P. Adams, P. Berloff, A. Biastoch, B. Blanke, E. P. Chassignet, Y. Cheng, C. J. Cotter, E. Deleersnijder, K. Döös, H. Drake, S. Drijfhout, S. F. Gary, A. W. Heemink, J. Kjellsson, I. M. Koszalka, M. Lange, C. Lique, G. A. MacGilchrist, R. Marsh, C. G. Mayorga Adame, R. McAdam, F. Nencioli, C. B. Paris, M. D. Piggott, J. A. Polton, S. Rühs, S. H. A. M. Shah, M. D. Thomas, J. Wang, P. J. Wolfram, L. Zanna, J. D. Zika (2017). Ocean Modeling, doi:10.1016/j.ocemod.2017.11.008

  6. CO2-induced ocean warming around the Antarctic ice sheet in an eddying global climate model
    Goddard, P., C. O. Dufour, J. Yin, S. M. Griffies, and M. Winton (2017). J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 122. doi:10.1002/2017JC012849

  7. Space and time variability of the Southern Ocean carbon budget
    Rosso, I, M.R. Mazloff, A. Verdy, and L.D. Talley (2017). J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 122. doi:10.1002/2016JC012646

  8. A data assimilating model for estimating Southern Ocean biogeochemistry
    Verdy.A. and M.R. Mazloff (2017). J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 122. doi:10.1002/2016JC012650

  9. Observing System Simulation Experiments for an array of autonomous biogeochemical profiling floats in the Southern Ocean
    Kamenkovich, I., A. Haza, A. R. Gray, C. O. Dufour, Z. Garraffo (2017), J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 122. doi:10.1002/2017JC012819

  10. Annual nitrate drawdown observed by SOCCOM profiling floats and the relationship to annual net community production
    Johnson, K.S. J.N. Plant, L.D. Talley, J.L. Sarmiento (2017). J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 122, 6668–6683. doi:10.1002/2017JC012839

  11. Localized rapid warming of West Antarctic Peninsula subsurface waters by remote winds
    Spence, J., R. Holmes, A. McC. Hogg, S.M. Griffies, K.D. Stewart, and M.H. England (2017). Nature Climate Change, doi: 10.1038/NCLIMATE3335

  12. Biogeochemical sensor performance in the SOCCOM profiling float array
    Johnson, K.S., J.N. Plant, L.J. Coletti, H.W. Jannasch, C.M. Sakamoto, S.C. Riser, D.D. Swift, N.L. Williams, E. Boss, N. Haëntjens, L.D. Talley, J.L. Sarmiento (2017). J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 122, 6416–6436. doi: 10.1002/2017JC012838

  13. Preconditioning of the Weddell Sea polynya by the ocean mesoscale and dense water overflows
    Dufour, C. O., A. K. Morrison, S. M. Griffies, I. Frenger, H. Zanowski, M. Winton (2017). Journal of Climate, doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0586.1

  14. Revisiting Ocean Color algorithms for chlorophyll a and particulate organic carbon in the Southern Ocean using biogeochemical floats
    Haëntjens, N., E. S. Boss, L. D. Talley (2017). J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 122, 6583–6593. doi:10.1002/2017JC012844

  15. Spiraling up: pathways of global deep waters to the surface of the Southern Ocean
    Tamsitt, V., H. Drake , A. K. Morrison , L. D. Talley , C. O. Dufour , A. R. Gray, S. M. Griffies , M. R. Mazloff, J. L. Sarmiento , J. Wang , W. Weijer (2017). Nature Communications, 172, 8. doi:10.1038/s41467-017-00197-0

  16. Southern Ocean [in “State of the Climate in 2016”]
    Mazloff, M.R., J.-B.Sallée J-B, V.V. Menezes VV, A.M.Macdonald, M.P. Meredith, L. Newman, V. Pellichero, F. Roquet, S. Swart, A. Wåhlin. 2017. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.. 98(8), S155-S172.

  17. Estimates of Water-Column Nutrients and Carbonate System Parameters in the Global Ocean: A Novel Approach Based on Neural Networks
    Sauzède R., H. Claustre, O. P. de Fommervault, H. Bittig, J.-P. Gattuso, L. Legendre, and K. S. Johnson (2017). Front. Mar. Sci. 4:128. doi:10.3389/fmars.2017.00128

  18. Developing chemical sensors to observe the health of the global ocean
    Johnson, K. S. (2017). IEEE Transducers 2017. doi:10.1109/TRANSDUCERS.2017.7993975

  19. Importance of mesoscale eddies and mean circulation in ventilation of the Southern Ocean
    Kamenkovich, I., Z. Garraffo, R. Pennel, and R. A. Fine (2017). J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 122, 2724–2741, doi:10.1002/2016JC012292.

  20. Calculating surface ocean pCO2 from biogeochemical Argo floats equipped with pH: an uncertainty analysis
    Williams, N. L., L. W. Juranek, R. A. Feely, K. S. Johnson, J. L. Sarmiento, L. D. Talley, J. L. Russell, S. C. Riser, A. G. Dickson, A. R. Gray, R. Wanninkhof, and Y. Takeshita (2017). Global Biogeochemical Cycles., 31(3), doi:10.1002/2016GB005541.

  21. Wind modulation of upwelling at the shelf-break front off Patagonia: Observational evidence
    Carranza, M. M., S. T. Gille, A. R. Piola, M. Charo, and S. I. Romero (2017), J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 122, 2401–2421, doi:10.1002/2016JC012059.


  1. In situ phase-domain calibration of oxygen optodes on profiling floats
    Drucker, R. and S. C. Riser (2016). Methods in Oceanography, 17, 206-318, doi:10.1016/j.mio.2016.09.007.

  2. Assessing recent trends in high-latitude Southern Hemisphere surface climate
    Jones, J. M., S. T. Gille, H. Goosse, N. J. Abram, P. O. Canziani, D. J. Charman, K. R. Clem, X. Crosta, C. de Lavergne, I. Eisenman, M. H. England, R. L. Fogt, L. M. Frankcombe, G. J. Marshall, V. Masson-Delmotte, A. K. Morrison, A. J. Orsi, M. N. Raphael, J. A. Renwick, D. P. Schneider, G. R. Simpkins, E. J. Steig, B. Stenni, D. Swingedouw and T. R. Vance (2016). Nature Climate Change, 6, 917-926, doi:10.1038/NCLIMATE3103.

  3. Temporal changes in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current: Implications for the Antarctic continental shelves
    Gille, S. T., D. C. McKee, and D. G. Martinson (2016). Oceanography, 29(4), 96-105, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2016.102.

  4. Bringing biogeochemistry into the Argo age
    Johnson, Kenneth S., and H. Claustre (2016). Eos, 97, doi:10.1029/2016EO062427.

  5. Substantial energy input to the mesopelagic ecosystem from the seasonal mixed-layer pump
    Dall'Olmo, G., J. Dingle, L. Polimene, R.J.W. Brewin and H. Claustre (2016). Nature Geoscience, doi: 10.1038/NGEO2818.

  6. An advective mechanism for Deep Chlorophyll Maxima formation in southern Drake Passage
    Erickson Z.K, A.F. Thompson, N. Cassar, J. Sprintall, and M.R. Mazloff (2016). Geophys. Res. Lett., 43, doi:10.1002/2016GL070565.

  7. The effect of the Kerguelen Plateau on the ocean circulation
    Wang, J., M.R. Mazloff, S.T. Gille (2016). J. Phys. Oceanogr., doi: 10.1175/JPO-D-15-0216.1.

  8. How does Subantarctic Mode Water ventilate the Southern Hemisphere subtropics?
    Jones, D. C., A.J.S. Meijers, E. Shuckburgh, J.-B. Sallée, P. Haynes, E. Karczewska, and M.R. Mazloff (2016). J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 121 (9), doi:10.1002/2016JC011680.

  9. Profiling float-based observations of net respiration beneath the mixed layer
    Hennon, T.D., S.C. Riser, S. Mecking (2016). Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 30, 920–932. doi:10.1002/2016GB005380.

  10. Meridional overturning transports at 30°S in the Indian and Pacific Oceans in 2002-2003 and 2009
    Hernandez-Guerra, A. and L. D. Talley (2016). Progress in Oceanography, 146, 89–120. doi:10.1016/j.pocean.2016.06.005.

  11. Zonal variations in the Southern Ocean heat budget
    Tamsitt, V., L. Talley, M. Mazloff, I. Cerovecki (2016). J. Climate, 9 (18). doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-15-0630.1

  12. Water mass transformation by sea ice in the upper branch of the Southern Ocean overturning
    Abernathey, R.P., I. Cerovecki, P. Holland, E. Newsom, M. Mazloff and L. D. Talley (2016). Nature Geosciences, 9, 596–601. doi:10.1038/ngeo2749

  13. Bottom pressure torque and the vorticity balance from observations in Drake Passage
    Firing, Y.L., Chereskin T.K., Watts R.D., Mazloff M.R. (2016). Journal of Geophysical Research - Oceans, 121, 6, 4282–4302. doi:10.1002/2016JC011682

  14. An oceanic heat transport pathway to the Amundsen Sea Embayment
    Rodriguez, A. R., M. R. Mazloff, and S. T. Gille (2016). Journal of Geophysical Research - Oceans, 121, 5, 3337–3349.

  15. Mechanisms of Southern Ocean Heat Uptake and Transport in a Global Eddying Climate Model
    Morrison, A. K, S.M. Griffies, M. Winton, W.G. Anderson, and J.L Sarmiento (2016). Journal of Climate, 29, 2059–2075.

  16. Empirical Algorithms to Estimate Water Column pH in the Southern Ocean
    Williams, N. L., L. W. Juranek, K. S. Johnson, R. A. Feely, S. C. Riser, L. D. Talley, J. L. Russell, J. L. Sarmiento, and R. Wanninkhof (2016). Geophys. Res. Lett., 43, 7, 3415–3422

  17. Stratified tidal flow over a tall ridge above and below the turning latitude
    Musgrave, R. C., R. Pinkel, J. A. MacKinnon, Matthew R. Mazloff and W. R. Young (2016). Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 793, 933-957.

  18. Rapid variability of Antarctic Bottom Water transport into the Pacific Ocean inferred from GRACE
    Mazloff, M. and C. Boening (2016). Geophys. Res. Lett., 43, 8, 3822–3829.

  19. Accurate oxygen measurements on modified Argo floats using in situ air calibrations
    Bushinsky, S. M., S. R. Emerson, S. C. Riser, and D. D. Swift. (2016). Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods, doi:10.1002/lom3.10107.

  20. Deep-Sea DuraFET: A pressure tolerant pH sensor designed for global sensor networks
    Johnson, K. S., H. W. Jannasch, L. J. Coletti, V. A. Elrod, T. R. Martz, Y. Takeshita, R. J. Carlson, J. G. Connery (2016). Analytical Chemistry.

  21. Fifteen years of ocean observations with the global Argo array
    Riser, S.C., H.J. Freeland, D. Roemmich, S. Wijffels, A. Troisi, M. Belbéoch, D. Gilbert, J. Xu, S. Pouliquen, A. Thresher, P. Le Traon, G. Maze, B. Klein, M. Ravichandran, F. Grant, P. Poulain, T. Suga, B. Lim, A. Sterl, P. Sutton, K. Mork, P. J. Vélez-Belchí, I. Ansorge, B. King, J. Turton, M. Baringer & S. R. Jayne (2016). Nature Climate Change, 6, 145–153.

  22. The spatiotemporal structure of diabatic processes governing the evolution of Subantarctic Mode Water in the Southern Ocean
    Cerovecki, I. and M. Mazloff (2016). Journal of Physical Oceanography, 46, 683-710.

  23. Air oxygen calibration of oxygen optodes on a profiling float array
    Johnson, K. S., J. N. Plant, S. C. Riser, and D. Gilbert (2016). Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 32, 2160–2172, 2016.


  1. Complex functionality with minimal computation: promise and pitfalls of reduced-tracer ocean biogeochemistry model
    Galbraith E. D., J. P. Dunne, A. Gnanadesikan, R. D. Slater, J. L. Sarmiento, C. O. Dufour, G. F. de Souza, D. Bianchi, M. Claret, K. B. Rodgers, S. S. Marvasti (2015). Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 7, 2012-2028.

  2. Role of mesoscale eddies in cross-frontal transport of heat and biogeochemical tracers in the Southern Ocean
    C.O. Dufour, S.M., Griffies, G.F. de Souza, I. Frenger, A.K. Morrison, J.B. Palter, J.L. Sarmiento, E.D. Galbraith, J.P. Dunne, W.G. Anderson, R.D. Slater (2015). J. Phys. Oceanogr., 45, 3057–3081.

  3. Topographic form stress in the Southern Ocean State Estimate
    Masich, J., T. K. Chereskin, and M. R. Mazloff (2015). J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 120, 7919–7933.

  4. Quantifying anthropogenic carbon inventory changes in the Pacific Sector of the Southern Ocean"\
    Williams, N.L., R. A. Feely, C.L. Sabine, A.G. Dickson, J.H. Swift, L.D. Talley, J.L. Russell (2015). Marine Chemistry, 174,147–160.

  5. Southern Ocean wind-driven entrainment enhances satellite chlorophyll-a through the summer
    Carranza and S.T. Gille (2015). Journal of Geophysical Research - Oceans, 120, 304-323.

  6. Upwelling in the Southern Ocean
    A.K. Morrison, T.L. Froelicher, J.L. Sarmiento (2015). Physics Today, 68, 1.


Submitted publications

  • "Direct observation of the three-dimensional meridional overturning circulation in the Southern Ocean"
    Gray, A. R. and S. C. Riser, in review, Science

External publications using SOCCOM data

  1. Deep Chlorophyll Maxima in the global ocean: occurrences, drivers and characteristics.
    Cornec, M., H. Claustre, A. Mignot, L. Guidi, L. Lacour, A. Poteau, F. D'Ortenzio, B. Gentili, C. Schmechtig (2021).  Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 35, e2020GB006759. DOI:10.1029/2020GB006759

  2. Glacial deep ocean deoxygenation driven by biologically mediated air–sea disequilibrium. 
    Cliff, E., S. Khatiwala & A. Schmittner (2021). Nat. Geosci. 14, 43–50. DOI:10.1038/s41561-020-00667-z

  3. Physical and biological controls of the Drake Passage pCO2 variability
    Jersild, A., & T. Ito (2020). Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 34, e2020GB006644.  DOI: 10.1029/2020GB006644

  4. Effect of Antarctic sea ice on chlorophyll concentration in the Southern Ocean,
    Behera, N., D. Swain, S. Sil (2020). Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography,
    Volume 178,104853. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr2.2020.104853.

  5. Satellite observations of unprecedented phytoplankton blooms in the Maud Rise polynya, Southern Ocean
    Jena, B. and A.N. Pillai (2020). The Cryosphere, 14, 1385–1398. DOI: 10.5194/tc-14-1385-2020

  6. BGC-Argo Detect Under Ice Phytoplankton Growth Before Sea Ice Retreat
    Hague, M. and M. Vichi (2020). Biogeosciences Discuss, in review. DOI:10.5194/bg-2020-257

  7. Remote assessment of the fate of phytoplankton in the Southern Ocean sea-ice zone
    Moreau, S., Boyd, P.W. & Strutton, P.G.Nat Commun 11, 3108 (2020). DOI:0.1038/s41467-020-16931-0

  8. Global variability of optical backscattering by non-algal particles from a Biogeochemical-Argo dataset 
    Bellacicco, M., M. Cornec, E. Organelli, R.J.W. Brewin, G. Neukermans, G. Volpe, M. Barbieux, A. Poteau, C. Schmechtig, F. D’Ortenzio, S. Marullo, H. Claustre, and J. Pitarch (2019). Geophysical Research Letters, 46. DOI: 10.1029/2019gl084078

  9. Evaluating satellite estimates of particulate backscatter in the global open ocean using autonomous profiling floats
    Bisson, K.M., E Boss, T.K. Westberry, M J. Behrenfeld (2019). Optics Express, 27. DOI: 10.1364/OE.27.030191

  10. Hydrothermal vents trigger massive phytoplankton blooms in the Southern Ocean
    Ardyna, M., L. Lacour, S. Sergi, F. d’Ovidio, J.-B. Sallée, M. Rembauville, S. Blain, A. Tagliabue, R. Schlitzer, C. Jeandel, K.R. Arrigo & H. Claustre (2019). Nature Communications, 2451,10, 1. DOI:10.1038/s41467-019-09973-6

  11. Biofloat observations of a phytoplankton bloom and carbon export in the Drake Passage
    Davies, A. R., Veron, F., Oliver, M. J. (2019). Deep-Sea Research Part I I: | DOI: 10.1016/j.dsr.2019.02.004

  12. Recent reoccurrence of large open‐ocean polynya on the Maud Rise seamount
    Jena, B., M. Ravichandran, and J. Turner, J. ( 2019).  Geophysical Research Letters, 46, 4320– 4329. DOI: 10.1029/2018GL081482

  13. Open-ocean polynyas and deep convection in the Southern Ocean
    Cheon, W.G. and A.L. Gordon (2019). Scientific Reports 9, 6935, 9(1). DOI:10.1038/s41598-019-43466-2

  14. What Fraction of the Pacific and Indian Oceans' Deep Water is formed in the North Atlantic?
    Rae, J. W. B. and Broecker, W (2018).Biogeosciences Discuss., doi: 10.5194/bg-2018-8

  15. Evaluating Southern Ocean Carbon Eddy-Pump From Biogeochemical-Argo Floats
    Joan Llort,, C. Langlais, R. Matear, S. Moreau, A. Lenton, and P. G. Strutton (2017), Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans,123, 971–984. doi:10.1002/2017JC012861

  16. Stirring Up the Biological Pump: Vertical Mixing and Carbon Export in the Southern Ocean
    Stukel, M.R. and H.W. Ducklow (2017). Global Biogeochemical Cycles, doi: 10.1002/2017GB005652

  17. Particulate concentration and seasonal dynamics in the mesopelagic ocean based on the backscattering coefficient measured with Biogeochemical-Argo floats
    Poteau, A., E. Boss,, and H. Claustre (2017).  Geophys. Res. Lett., 44, doi:10.1002/2017GL073949

  18. Substantial energy input to the mesopelagic ecosystem from the seasonal mixed-layer pump
    Dall’Olmo, G., J. Dingle, L. Polimene, R.J.W. Brewin, and H. Claustre (2016). Nature Geoscience, 9, 820–823, doi: 10.1038/NGEO2818

Ph.D. Theses

  1. Sea ice and upper ocean variability in the Southern Ocean
    Wilson, Earle, University of Washington, Seattle, 2019.
  2. Aspects of the Three-Dimensionality of the Southern Ocean Overturning Circulation
    Tamsitt, Veronica, University of California, San Diego, 2018.
  3. New Insights on the Southern Ocean Carbon Cycle from Biogeochemical Argo Floats
    Williams, Nancy L., Oregon State University, Corvallis, 2018.
  4. Expanding marine biogeochemical observations utilizing ISFET pH sensing technology and autonomous platforms
    Briggs, Ellen M., University of California, San Diego, 2017.


  1. Bringing biogeochemistry into the Argo age
    Johnson, K. S., and H. Claustre (2016), Eos, 97.
  2. Anthropogenic carbon and heat uptake by the ocean: Will the Southern Ocean remain a major sink?
    Dufour, C. O., I. Frenger, T. L. Frolicher, A. R. Gray, S. M. Griffes, A. K. Morrison, J. L. Sarmiento, and S. A. Schlunegger (2015). US CLIVAR Variations, 13(4), Fall, pp. 1-8.
  3. Estimating Southern Ocean air-sea fluxes from models and observations
    Gille, S., I. Cerovecki, M. Mazloff, and V. Tamsitt (2015). US CLIVAR Variations, 13(4), Fall, pp. 8-12.
  4. Workshop Summary: Air-Sea Fluxes in the Southern Ocean
    Gille, S. (2015), September 21-23, Frascati, Italy, CliC News, 21 October.
  5. Workshop: Southern Ocean Air-Sea Fluxes, 21-23 September 2015 - Frascati, Italy
    Mazloff, M. and S. Swart (2015). SOOS Newsletter.
  6. Air-Sea Fluxes for the Southern Ocean: Strategies and Requirements for Detecting Physical and Biogeochemical Exchanges
    Gille, S., S. Josey, and and S. Swart (2016). Eos, 13 May.
  7. State estimation for determining the properties and sensitivities of the Southern Ocean carbon cycle
    Mazloff, M., and A. Verdy (2015). US CLIVAR Variations, 13(4), Fall, pp. 20-25.
  8. Biogeochemical metrics for the evaluation of the Southern Ocean in Earth system models
    Russell, J.R. and I. Kamenkovich (2015). US CLIVAR Variations, 13(4), Fall, pp. 26-31.
  9. The Southern Ocean Carbon and Climate Observations and Modeling Program (SOCCOM)
    Russell, J.R., J.L. Sarmiento, H. Cullen, R. Hotinski, K. Johnson, S. Riser, and L. Talley (2014). Ocean Carbon and Biogeochemistry Newsletter, Fall, pp. 1-5.